Cómo se propaga un terremoto?

Posted on 26 marzo 2010

 Como se propaga un terremoto? Cómo se expande un terremoto? Cómo afecta un sismo? Toda la información sobre terremotos:

El movimiento sísmico se propaga mediante ondas elásticas (similares al sonido), a partir del hipocentro. Las ondas sísmicas se presentan en tres tipos principales:

  • Ondas longitudinales, primarias o P: tipo de ondas de cuerpo que se propagan a una velocidad de entre 8 y 13 km/s y en el mismo sentido que la vibración de las partículas. Circulan por el interior de la Tierra, atravesando tanto líquidos como sólidos. Son las primeras que registran los aparatos de medida o sismógrafos, de ahí su nombre “P”.
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  • Ondas longitudinales, primarias o P: tipo de ondas de cuerpo que se propagan a una velocidad de entre 8 y 13 km/s y en el mismo sentido que la vibración de las partículas. Circulan por el interior de la Tierra, atravesando tanto líquidos como sólidos. Son las primeras que registran los aparatos de medida o sismógrafos, de ahí su nombre “P”.
  •  

  • Ondas superficiales: son las más lentas de todas (3,5 km/s) y son producto de la interacción entre las ondas P y S a lo largo de la superficie de la Tierra. Son las que producen más daños. Se propagan a partir del epicentro y son similares a las ondas que se forman sobre la superficie del mar. Este tipo de ondas son las que se registran en último lugar en los sismógrafos.
  •  

  • Terremotos Inducidos
    Hoy en día se tiene la certeza de que si se inyectan en el subsuelo ya sea como consecuencia de la eliminación de desechos en solucion o en suspensión o por la extracción de hidrocarburos se provoca, con un brusco aumento de la presión intersticial una intensificación de la actividad sísmica en las regiones ya sometidas a fuertes tensiones. Pronto se deberían controlar mejor estos sismos inducidos y, en consecuencia, preverlos, tal vez, pequeños sismos inducidos pudieran evitar el desencadenamiento de un terremoto de mayor magnitud.
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